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Baby/Infant/Newborn: (from Wikipedia)
An infant or baby is the term used to refer to the very young offspring of humans.
The term "infant" derives from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak." "Infant" is also a legal term referring to any child under the age of legal adulthood.
It is traditional in western society for children to be looked after by one or both of their parents. In many families (and almost exclusively so in some communities), the childcare role is taken on by the extended family. One of the challenges for parents who choose to use other sources of childcare is finding and affording qualified providers.
The need or preference for two-job households means that childcare is often delegated to childminders or crèches on a full-time or part-time basis. An option that often keeps children in a home setting is the use of a nanny or an au pair.
Most western countries also have compulsory education during which children are at school starting from five or six years of age. The school will act in loco parentis meaning "in lieu of parent supervision".
Where parents are missing, dead, unable or unfit to care for children, state agencies such as social services may take on the childcare role.
Infants cry as a form of basic instinctive communication. A crying infant may be trying to express a variety of feelings including hunger, discomfort, overstimulation, boredom, wanting something, or loneliness.
Breastfeeding is the recommended method of feeding by all major infant health organizations. If breastfeeding is not possible or desired, bottle feeding is done with expressed breast-milk or with infant formula. Infants are born with a sucking reflex allowing them to extract the milk from the nipples of the breasts or the nipple of the baby bottle, as well as an instinctive behavior known as rooting with which they seek out the nipple. Sometimes a wet nurse is hired to feed the infant, although this is rare, especially in developed countries.
As infants grow, food supplements are added. Many parents choose commercial, ready-made baby foods to supplement breast milk or formula for the child, while others adapt their usual meals for the dietary needs of their child. Whole cow's milk can be used at one year, but lower-fat milk should not be provided until the child is 2 to 3 years old. Until they are toilet-trained, infants in industrialized countries wear diapers. Children need more sleep than adults—up to 18 hours for newborn babies, with a declining rate as the child ages. Until babies learn to walk, they are carried in the arms, held in slings or baby carriers, or transported in baby carriages or strollers. Most industrialized countries have laws requiring child safety seats for infants in motor vehicles.
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